A Guide To Questioning In The Classroom

valueofeducation-flickeringbradA Guide to Questioning in the Classroom

by TeachThought Staff

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This is part 1 of a 2-part series on questioning in the classroom. Part 1 focuses on questions in general–their function, purpose, forms, their relationship with cognitive dissonance, as well as a quick overview of essential questions. Part 2 of the Guide To Questioning In The Classroom (publishing 4/14/2015) will focus on question strategies, especially those that help students learn to ask their own questions in an inquiry-process.

Something we’ve become known for is our focus on thought, inquiry, and understanding, and questions are a big part of that. We’ve done questions that students should ask, parents should ask, students should and shouldn’t answer, questions that promote and stifle inquiry, question that reveal self-knowledge and wisdom, and more.

If the ultimate goal of education is for students to be able to effectively answer questions, then focusing on content and response strategies makes sense. If the ultimate goal of education is to teach students to think, then focusing on how we can help students ask better questions themselves might make sense, no?

Why Questions Are More Important Than Answers

The ability to ask the right question at the right time is a powerful indicator of authentic understanding. Asking a question that pierces the veil in any given situation is itself an artifact of the critical thinking teachers so desperately seek in students, if for no other reason than it shows what the student know, and then implies the desire to know more.

Asking a question is a sign of understanding, not ignorance; it requires both knowledge and then–critically–the ability to see what else you’re missing.

Questions are more important than answers because they reflect both understanding and curiosity in equal portions. To ask a question is to see both backward and forward–to make sense of a thing and what you know about it, and then extend outward in space and time to imagine what else can be known, or what others might know. To ask a great question is to see the conceptual ecology of the thing.

In a classroom, a student can see a drop of water, a literary device, a historical figure, or a math theorem, but these are just fragments that are worthless in and of themselves. A student in biology studying a drop of water must see the water as infinitely plural–as something that holds life and something that gives life.

As a marker of life, and an icon of health.

It is a tool, a miracle, a symbol, and a matter of science.

They must know what’s potentially inside of a drop of water, and then how to find out what’s actually inside that drop of water.

They must know what others have found studying water, as well as what that drop of water means within the field of science, and beyond it.

They must know that water is never really just water.

question-game-critical-thinkingTeacher Questions vs Student Questions

When teachers try to untangle this cognitive mess, they sacrifice personalization for efficiency. There are simply too many students, and too much content to cover, so they cut to the chase.

Which means then tend towards the universal over the individual–broad, sweeping questions intermingling with sharper, more concise questions that hopefully shed some light and cause some curiosity. In a class of 30 with an aggressively-paced curriculum map and the expectation that every student master the content regardless of background knowledge, literacy level, or interest in the material, this is the best most teachers can do.

This only a bottleneck, though, when the teacher asks the questions. When the student asks the question, the pattern is reversed. The individual student has little regard for the welfare of the class, especially when they’re forming questions. They’re on the clock to say something, anything. Which is great, because questions–when they’re authentic–are automatically personal because they came up with them. They’re not tricks, or guess-what-the-teacher’s-thinking.

A student couldn’t possibly capture the scale of confusion or curiosity of 30 other people; instead, they survey their own thinking, spot both gaps and fascinations, and form a question. This is the spring-loading of a Venus flytrap. The topic crawls around in the mind of the student innocently enough, and when the time is right–and the student is confident–the flower snaps shut. Once a student starts asking questions, that magic of learning can begin.

And the best part for a teacher? Questions reveal far more than answers ever might.

The Purpose of Questions

Thought of roughly as a kind of spectrum, four purposes of questions might stand out, from more “traditional” to more “progressive.”

purpose-of-questions

(More Traditional) Academic View

In a traditional academic setting, the purpose of a question is to elicit a response that can be assessed (i.e., answer this question so I can see what you know).

(Less Traditional) Curriculum-Centered View

Here, a “good question” matters more than a good answer, as it demonstrates the complexity of student understanding of a given curriculum.

(More Progressive) Inquiry View

As confusion or curiosity markers that suggest a path forward for inquiry, and then are iterated and improved based on learning. (Also known as question-based learning.)

(More Progressive Still) Self-Directed View

In a student-centered circumstance, a question illuminates possible learning pathways forward irrespective of curriculum demands. The student’s own knowledge demands–and their uncovering–center and catalyze the learning experience.

The Relative Strengths of Questions

  • Good questions can reveal subtle shades of understanding–what this student knows about this topic in this context
  • Questions promote inquiry and learning how to learn over proving what you know
  • Questions fit in well with the modern “Google” mindset
  • Used well, questions can promote personalized learning as teachers can change question on fly to meet student needs

The Relative Weaknesses of Questions

  • Questions depend on language, which means literacy, jargon, confusing syntax, academic diction, and more can all obscure the learning process
  • Questions can imply answers, which imply stopping points and “finishing” over inquiry and wisdom (See questions that promote inquiry-based learning.)
  • Accuracy of answers can be overvalued, which makes the confidence of the answerer impact the quality of the response significantly
  • “Bad questions” are easy to write and deeply confusing, which can accumulate to harm a student’s sense of self-efficacy, as well as their own tendency to ask them on their own

7 Common Written Assessment Question Forms

Questions as written assessment (as opposed to questions as inquiry, questions to guide self-directed learning, or questions to demonstrate understanding) most commonly take the following forms in writing:

  1. Matching
  2. True/False
  3. Multiple Choice
  4. Short Answer
  5. Diagramming
  6. Essay
  7. Open-Ended

Questioning & Self-Directed Learning

For years in classrooms, questions have guided teachers in the design of units and lessons, often through the development of essential questions that all students should be able to reasonably respond to, and that can guide their learning of existing and pre-mapped content.

In the TeachThought Self-Directed Learning Model, learners are required to create their own curriculum through a series of questions that emphasize self-knowledge, citizenship, and communal and human interdependence. In this model, existing questions act as a template to uncover potential learning pathways.

SDL Framework ONEONE

Cognitive Dissonance

Cognitive Dissonance is the cognitively-uncomfortable act of holding two seemingly competing beliefs at the same time. If you believe that Freedom of Speech is the foundation of democracy, but then are presented with a perspective (through Socratic-style questioning from the teacher, for example), you arrive (or the student does) at a crossroads where they have to adjust something–either their belief, or their judgment about the validity of the question itself.

In this way, questions can promote Cognitive Dissonance–which means a good question can change a student’s mind, beliefs, or tendency to examine their own beliefs. Questions, cognitive, and self-reflection go hand-in-hand.

Role of “Lower-Level” Questions

Lower-level questions are questions that inquire at “lower levels” of various learning taxonomies.

These are often “recall,” questions that are based in fact—definitions, dates, names, biographical details, etc.  Education is thought to have focused (without having been there, who knows for sure?) on these lower levels, and “low” is bad in academics, right? “Lower-level” thinking implies a lack of “higher level” thinking, so instead of analyzing, interpreting, evaluating, and creating, students are defining, recalling, and memorizing, the former of which make for artists and designers and innovators, and the latter of which make for factory workers.

And that part, at least, is (mostly) true. Recall and memorization aren’t the stuff of understanding, much less creativity and wisdom, except that they are. Bloom’s Taxonomy was not created to segregate “good thinking” from “bad thinking.” In their words, “Our attempt to arrange educational behaviors from simple to complex was based on the idea that a particular simple behavior may become integrated with other equally simple behaviors to form a more complex behavior.” In this way, the taxonomy is simply one way of separating the strands of thinking like different colored yarn–a kind of visual scheme to see the pattern, contrasts, and even sequence of cognitive actions.

Nowhere does it say that definitions and names and labels and categories are bad–and if it did, we’d have to wonder about the taxonomy rather than assuming that they were. It doesn’t take much imagination to see that if a student doesn’t know there was a war, and that it was fought in the United States in the 1800s, and that it was purportedly over states’ rights, and that both culture, industry, and agriculture all impacted the hows, whens, and whys of the war, that “higher-level thinking strategies” aren’t going to be very useful.

In short, lower-level questions can both illuminate and establish foundational knowledge on which to build more complex and nuanced understanding of content. They provide a foothold for thinking. To further the point, in 5 Common Misconceptions About Bloom’s Taxonomy, Grant Wiggins explains that the phrases “higher-order” and “lower-order” don’t appear anywhere in the taxonomy.

Essential Questions

On his website, Grant Wiggins defines an essential questions as those that are “broad in scope and timeless by nature. They are perpetually arguable.”

Examples of Essential Questions

  • What is justice?
  • Is art a matter of taste or principles?
  • How far should we tamper with our own biology and chemistry?
  • Is science compatible with religion?
  • Is an author’s view privileged in determining the meaning of a text?
  • A question is essential when it:
  • causes genuine and relevant inquiry into the big ideas and core content;
  • provokes deep thought, lively discussion, sustained inquiry, and new understanding as well as more questions;
  • requires students to consider alternatives, weigh evidence, support their ideas, and justify their answers;
  • stimulates vital, on-going rethinking of big ideas, assumptions, and prior lessons;
  • sparks meaningful connections with prior learning and personal experiences;
  • naturally recurs, creating opportunities for transfer to other situations and subjects.

You can see more examples of essential questions here.

On Tuesday, we’ll help you take this background information and channel into specific question strategies that you can use to help students learn to create their own questions.

A Guide To Questioning In The Classroom; image attribution flickr user flickeringbrad

17 Comments

  • The Teachthought staff argues that questioning improves
    learning for the reason that it is indicative of curiosity, understanding, and critical
    thinking. While this blog post addresses the
    beneficial effects of questioning in the classroom, it suggests that all types
    of questions are advantageous to learning. It undermines the value of answering
    questions by stating that it is primarily the act of questioning that facilitates
    learning. Moreover, the staff argues that not only does questioning improve
    learning, but it also allows students to create their own personalized curriculum
    by addressing their interests and knowledge demands by way of self-directed
    learning.

    Previous research has demonstrated that children who
    collaborated with their peers by asking questions exhibited better performance
    on problem solving, thereby supporting the Teachthought staff perspective. To
    further extend this finding, King (1991) investigated the effect of guided questioning
    training on problem solving ability. The guided questioning group was trained
    to use a set of strategic question stems. The students were also trained on answering
    these strategic questions. The researchers compared the experimental group to
    the unguided questioning and control (no question) groups. According to the
    results, 6/7 pairs from the guided questioning group solved the problem set
    correctly while only 2/8 pairs in both the unguided-questioning and the control
    conditions were successful. The researchers observed that the students in the
    guided questioning group provided more elaborate explanations when responding
    to their partners’ questions than their peers in the unguided questioning
    condition. Because the students in the unguided questioning group did not
    differ in performance from those in the control group, it is evident that
    contrary to the Teachthought argument, questioning in and of itself does not
    confer benefit in problem solving.

    Peer interaction facilitated knowledge acquisition in the
    experiment because it allowed students to exchange ideas and reconcile
    differing perspectives, thus corroborating the cognitive dissonance argument
    mentioned in the blog. Strategic questioning was likely to be a form of metacognitive
    strategy that allowed students to become more aware of their learning, which promoted
    critical thinking. Moreover, generating answers was likely to be as beneficial as
    asking questions because it would cause students to consider other accounts and
    evaluate their personal perspectives. Merely instructing students to ask each
    other questions during problem solving exercises was not sufficient because
    they did not ask the types of strategic questions that were necessary to facilitate
    elaboration and reconceptualization of ideas.

    In order for questioning to have a beneficial effect on
    performance, students either need to be trained on how to ask strategic
    questions or must have a facilitator providing feedback during the interaction.
    The results of the King study calls into question the validity of the
    Teachthought self-directed learning argument, in which questioning allows
    students to create a personalized curriculum tailored to their interests and
    intellectual needs. If students need to be trained on how to ask strategic
    questions that would enhance their understanding of the material, they would
    also need training to create an effective personalized curriculum. If this
    training is needed, then how personalized can the students’ self-created curriculum
    really be?

    Sources:

    King, A. (1991). Effects of training in strategic questioning on children’s problem-solving performance. Journal of Educational Psychology, 83(3), 307-317.

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